Contextualizing Imperial Disruption and Upheavals and their Associated Research Challenges (Hardback)
This volume follows on from papers presented at the 13th International Cretan Congress in 2022 and covers the period from the 1st century BC to 4th–5th centuries AD, with the articles in the volume set around the topic of upheavals and disruptions, and in particular those evidenced with the arrival of Rome, the creation of the Roman Province, along with those resulting from the dividing of the Roman Empire and the emergence of the Byzantine world. The volume is set against the background of the Roman conquest of Crete in 67 BC, which heralded the end of the power and control of the Greek city-states, which were themselves steeped in age-old traditions and governed by a variety of legal frameworks, some of which had their roots in Archaic times. The ensuing changes, when they arrived, took centuries to develop but resulted in the establishment of a Greco-Roman culture and society that was far removed from its Hellenistic predecessor. Roman Crete witnessed several significant periods of disruption and interventions that had a direct impact on daily life and society. These included the military invasion of the island by Rome, at one end of the period, and the AD 365 destructive earthquake at the other, but other interruptions also occurred: changes to religion and religious practices, including the introduction of Christianity; fluctuations in natural resources that affected agricultural production and thus local economies and trade; monetary devaluations in Rome; movements of populations; external shifts in trading networks; and multiple instances of tectonic activity in the Imperial period that caused damage and instability.