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Miguel Miranda, formerly a regional reporter, is an author from the Philippines and writes for several Pen & Sword military history series including ‘Cold War 1945–1991’ and ‘History of Terror’. Writing about the battle of Manila has been an opportunity for him to confront a very dark period in Philippine history, one that is still misunderstood today. To amass the wealth of research and insight for his latest work he pored over volumes of official histories and archives, assembling a detailed narrative on the topic.


Not only did the battle of Manila liberate the Philippines from cruel foreign domination but it set the stage for total independence in 1946. It bookended the American colonial period (1899–1945) and closed a chapter in a long saga of conflict and struggle that has visited his homeland again and again. As a country whose history is shaped by the designs of various empires, the battle of Manila showed how vital the Philippines is to the region, the gateway to the Asian landmass and the rampart of grand strategy for a would-be superpower. As it was then, as it is today.