The island of Sicily is at the heart of the Mediterranean and from ancient times to the present day it has been a hub of migration and settlement. Following on from the British Museum’s critically acclaimed 2016 exhibition Sicily: culture and conquest, this volume considers the history and material culture of the different peoples occupying Sicily at key points in the island’s history. Part I concentrates on ancient Sicily during the time of Greek settlement, exploring themes such as the creation of urban centres during this period and the production of Sicilian terracotta between the 5th and 4th centuries BC. In Part II, the focus shifts to the Middle Ages, Sicily’s period of enlightenment under Muslim and Norman rules, with key themes including Norman identity and the use of the Norman legacy in the 19th century. With contributions from international experts in the field, the volume presents new insights into the economy, architecture and social identity of the island, including research on recently excavated sites. The result is a rich collection of essays that provides a comprehensive overview of this cosmopolitan island’s unique identity and its significance in a wider Mediterranean context.